Volume 25, Issue 3 (2021)                   MJSP 2021, 25(3): 147-173 | Back to browse issues page

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حاجی زاده م, ahadnejad M. Space production of Pahlavi absolute discourse. MJSP 2021; 25 (3) :147-173
URL: http://hsmsp.modares.ac.ir/article-21-54004-en.html
1- zanjan university
2- zanjan university , ahadnejad@znu.ac.ir
Abstract:   (1507 Views)
Introduction
Space is a social and consequently a political thing, and apart from worldview, ideology and discourse, it cannot be formed and developed, and the ideological framework of the formation forms the ruling policies, which are crystallized in the form of governing discourse. Each of the new forms of government and new patterns of political power introduces its own methods for dividing space, discourse, objects, and people living in space, and how it is used to change over time and use space to give economic and political strategies required for the exercise of power and discourse processes. In Iran, in the last hundred years, with the coming to power of Reza Khan in 1925, the central discourse of the Pahlavi government with the supremacy of the absolute Pahlavi discourse, and by articulating the signs of this discourse with hegemony and domination, represented space and created reasonable spaces. For the first time in history, it emerged as a dominant discourse in the society.
 Methodology
The present study seeks to provide a dialectical analysis of the process of space production in Tehran by identifying the dominant discourses in the period 1925-1941. Hence, it falls into the category of "fundamental" research. On the other hand, the executive path of research is "analytical-exploratory".
 Results and Discussion
The most important dominant discourse in Iran in the twentieth century was formed based on the Pahlavi Absolute Discourse of a complex set of diverse disciplines including the theory of Persian monarchy, traditional patrimonialism, the discourse of development and development in the style of Western modernism, legalism and the people. The discourse emphasized authoritarianism, reform from above, modernist rationality, Iranian nationalism, political centralism, cultural modernism, secularism, and industrial development. The absolutist state that emerged in the light of this discourse sought to move Iranian society and economy from a traditional, pre-capitalist formulation, and do major harm to Groups and culture introduced traditional society with its rationalist, authoritarian, and normative character.
The purpose and scope of Reza Shah's policies were, in practice, cities and urban social classes. On one hand, there were observed development measures and activities to modernize the country in cities, such as the demolition of old neighborhoods and the construction of new streets, and on the other hand, the expansion of government bureaucracy caused a mean for the central government to dominate on people's daily activities. During these years, the most noticeable changes took place in Tehran. The enactment of the Municipal Law in 1309 provided a suitable vehicle for heavy interventions in the old urban fabric; the law of widening and developing the streets and alleys in 1933, the first echo of Hussman urban planning and as a symbol of modernity were revealed. Two cruciform streets tear apart the old fabric of the city, crucifying the old city and separating the elements of urban spaces. The street is considered as a powerful tool in the city and becomes a dominant element that no element can deal with it compared to previous periods.
The discourse of absolute Pahlavi modernism in the form of spatial representation has created a city with a body, image, face and structure different from Tehran's past. In other words, the Pahlavi discourse has represented new spaces through hegemony and domination. Some of the social changes in Tehran in this period that distinguish it from previous periods are social and cultural changes including improving education, building a university, rejecting the hijab, reviving the Persian language by the language of academy, and immigration.
Rural and urban population growth, expansion of government offices and the formation of a new administrative class ; Economic and infrastructural changes, urban planning and architecture, including Tehran city development plan, implementation of Baladieh law, establishment of Bank Melli Iran, construction of Mehrabad airport, emergence of new urban activities and functions, construction of cruciform streets, squares, bazaar  ; Political changes include the emergence of a new bureaucracy, the consolidation of central government power, the formation of a modern army, the concentration of state affairs in the capital, the establishment of new urban divisions, relations with European countries, and their role in governance.
Totalitarian modernism, in order to achieve its enlightened menus, has to consolidate the bureaucratic system. State cities that are already in a semi-independent relationship with the center can only be the executor of the Cairo government bureaucracy in their new affiliate relationship. Following the Pahlavi bureaucratic approach, the city was given priority both as a physical manifestation of the current thinking of the time and as a platform for the forthcoming developments for organizing. Any urban regulation will inevitably lead to a cessation of organ development. On the other hand, with the seriousness of the issue of private property, the necessity of developing a new urban system became more apparent.
Conclusion
The urban plans of the 1930s clearly show how the relationship between the inhabitant and the resident and the relationship between the city and society sought an instrumental relationship, and for this reason, this relationship and through it, development was considered as an external matter and with no worries, they have made a historical break by discarding previous social, economic, and cultural formations.
Without worrying that man achieves being through habitation. The result is not only the physical disintegration of the city, but also the disintegration of the socio-cultural organization. Henceforth, the city is the place of crystallization of socio-cultural and physical-spatial distinctions that arise due to the demand for capital and the mercantile circulation of goods and capital, and through the indiscriminate occupation of land as the main element of trade in opposition to biological methods. It even offers its own climatic conditions.
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Article Type: Qualitative Research | Subject: civil planning
Received: 2021/07/11 | Accepted: 2021/08/25 | Published: 2021/10/2

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