Volume 25, Issue 4 (2021)                   MJSP 2021, 25(4): 71-112 | Back to browse issues page

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Hosseini Kahnooj S R, Sojasi Qeidari H, anabestani A A, Shahdadi A. Identify challenges affecting the development of tourism business ecosystem using a phenomenological approach. MJSP 2021; 25 (4) :71-112
URL: http://hsmsp.modares.ac.ir/article-21-49656-en.html
1- PhD student in Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2- Assistant Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad , ssojasi@yahoo.com
3- Professor, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
4- Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Jiroft University
Abstract:   (1600 Views)
Introduction
Examining the major challenges of tourism businesses at the local level is a cognitive function of environmental elements in a particular geographical context for which there is no repetitive pattern to measure. This issue is manifested in other ways in developing countries, including Iran; Tourism businesses emerge spontaneously, without knowledge and planning, without considering all aspects. As a result, their stability is practically lost and their success rate is reduced in the long run. In this regard, we can study the challenges of advancing tourism businesses in the villages of Sardouyeh district in Kerman province, which is due to the special geographical and climatic location of this region, and is considered as it has introduced rare and exceptional natural ecosystems in desert areas, and its tourism capacity has provided opportunities for local communities to thrive. However, businesses are created solely because of the prevailing tourism climate in the region. In practice, entrepreneurs do not have good financial support and if this situation continues, they will be exposed to widespread failure. In line with this need, the primary question that arises in this regard is; what are the main problems facing tourism entrepreneurs in the field of business development? Answering this question based on the analysis of answers will enable us to answer the question that, according to the lived experience of entrepreneurs, what are the challenges facing them? How effective are the key components?
 
Methodology
In the fundamental theory method, an attempt was made to collect data from people who have experiences with the phenomenon in question. So, people who had no experience were left out. According to Paul King Horn, the sample population could range from 15 to 55. Therefore, our statistical population in this study is formed by 54 entrepreneurs using snowball method in major tourism routes.
The purpose of this study is to provide a successful indigenous model to identify challenges affecting the status of tourism business ecosystem in Iran. The present study consists of three separate and at the same time complementary parts in order to observe the principle of integration in order to achieve a successful model. The first part of this research includes the lived experience of entrepreneurs in the field of tourism business, which was used to identify 54 entrepreneurs working in this field using the snowball method. The seven thematic codes, which were composed of the results of the components of other models of the tourism business ecosystem, were provided to the entrepreneurs, and a number of central codes were extracted according to the comments made about the problems facing their business. Complementary to this method, some other codes are extracted from the findings of other research in the form of meta-combined method and by observing the principled steps of those codes which are independent of their repetition by entrepreneurs and also with expert opinion and in accordance with local conditions, and formed a total of 31 core codes. After identifying the core codes, it was related to futures studies to identify the effective components with MicMac software. The results of this section show the impact of variables such as the seasonality of businesses following climate issues; access restrictions; existence of time-consuming bureaucracies and administrative formalities; poor knowledge of entrepreneurs about tourism jobs; misplaced imitations of the businesses of those around you; weakness in entrepreneurial culture and acceptance of innovations; weakness of educational issues and the impact of variables such as the level of legal literacy of entrepreneurs; poor support services and counseling; existing corruption and discrimination; numerous structural and managerial problems; poor organization of tourism businesses; low spirit of cooperation and participation.
 
Results and Discussion
The first part of this research includes the lived experience of entrepreneurs in the field of tourism business, which was used to identify 54 entrepreneurs working in this field using the snowball method. The seven thematic codes, which were composed of the results of the components of other models of the tourism business ecosystem, were provided to the entrepreneurs, and a number of central codes were extracted according to the comments made about the problems facing their business. Complementary to this method, some other codes were extracted from the findings of other researche in the form of meta-combined method and by observing the principled steps of those codes which are independent of their repetition by entrepreneurs and also with expert opinion and in accordance with local conditions, and formed a total of 31 core codes. After identifying the core codes, it was related to futures studies to identify the effective components with MicMac software. The results of this section show the impact of variables such as the seasonality of businesses following climate issues; access restrictions; existence of time-consuming bureaucracies and administrative formalities; Poor knowledge of entrepreneurs about tourism jobs; misplaced imitations of the businesses of those around you; weakness in entrepreneurial culture and acceptance of innovations; weakness of educational issues and the impact of variables such as the level of legal literacy of entrepreneurs; poor support services and counseling; existing corruption and discrimination; numerous structural and managerial problems; poor organization of tourism businesses; low spirit of cooperation and participation.
 
 
 
Conclusion
At the beginning of this report, there was a lack of consensus and shortcomings regarding the local definition of entrepreneurial businesses, as well as the lack of a comprehensive method and approach. Therefore, an attempt was made to redefine the phenomenon of indigenous entrepreneurship in the form of a phenomenological approach and then by relating the central codes to future research discussions and the structural equations of these relationships. This can help researchers in other disciplines to focus their research and methodologies in a coordinated approach to improving understanding of the subject. Also, explaining what and why entrepreneurship in this research showed that the obtained results can lead to the creation of a research realm or scope and field that is accepted by researchers and in turn can reduce the non-cumulative nature.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship ecosystem, tourism businesses, fundamental theory, meta-combined method, futures studies.
Full-Text [PDF 1245 kb]   (519 Downloads)    
Article Type: Qualitative Research | Subject: tourism planning and space economy
Received: 2021/01/29 | Accepted: 2021/10/19 | Published: 2021/12/31

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