Volume 23, Issue 1 (2019)                   MJSP 2019, 23(1): 85-116 | Back to browse issues page

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manouchehri A, rahnemaie M T. An analysis of the process of producing the state capitalist space in Iran, Case Study: Tehran City. MJSP 2019; 23 (1) :85-116
URL: http://hsmsp.modares.ac.ir/article-21-25111-en.html
1- Assistant Professor of Urmia Universit , ayub.manochehri@gmail.com
2- Tehran university
Abstract:   (8528 Views)
introduction
 
The space and how it can be organized and evolved in time and place can be the most fundamental issue and focal point for all topics and schools of geography, urban planning and urban design. Therefore, the organization of human settlements, activity centers at ground level with certain possibilities and limitations and the regulation of the interactive relationships between these elements in order to achieve an effective community can be considered as an ancient aspiration for spatial planning . Organizing and producing space in the form of a state begins since the Constitutional Revolution with the advent of a modern state in Iran, In fact, the modern state is trying to change the nature of space from consumption to exchanging mod for controlling and managing the space. the tool of this changing is city.  In this way, the modern state (emerging from the heart of the city) seeks to change the nature of space through urbanization of space. The modern state has consistently embraced in  strengthening and development of cities and urbanization with its city-centered and orbital city policies and in return, it paid less attention to the lives and livelihoods of rural and nomadic communities. In this research, the process of changing the nature of space in Iran from consumption to exchanging and commodity mod and the influential elements in this change will be discussed. To clarify the issue, Tehran city will be considered as the capital of the modern state and the most important place in space changing during the last century in order to examine the changing of the nature of space in the last 100 years in Iran.
 
Methodology
The present study aims to study and analyze the process of formation of the production of capitalist space in contemporary Iran, especially during the period of the emergence of the modern state with the Constitutional Revolution.  For this purpose, the method is descriptive-analytical study. The documentary (library) method has been used for data collection, The research approach was based on the study of the process of formation of the state capitalist space in Iran based on the city of Tehran in six areas in five periods of Qajar, Constitutional Revolution, the First Pahlavi, Pillar, Second Pahlavi, and the Islamic Republic. These areas include social structure, political economy, spatial system of the country, Tehran's place and role in the spatial structure of the country, spatial and physical changes of Tehran city which has been studied in five stages in order to analyze the process of production of state capitalist space.
 
Results and discussion
Space is a product of society and social production and every. Each production mode produces its own space according to its political and ideological characteristics. In the process of space production, three dimensions of space (spatial practice, representation of space and representational space) are involved, the balance of these three dimensions of space makes space equilibrium. The process of production of space in Iran before the Constitutional Revolution was in equilibrium and all the stakeholders in space were involved in its production. And also the nature of the space was concrete and for consumption, but after the advent of the modern state in Iran, the government not only influenced urbanization processes but also began to create new space by changing production methods,overnment intervention in space created an imbalance in space; in fact, the government began to represent space without regard for other stakeholders. The result of government intervention was to overcome the balance of space and the change in the nature of space, Over time, other actors (city planners, municipality, capital, and local communities) have been influenced in new space production. In fact, the state provided the necessary base for the new elements, but over the time, the role of the state in space was reduced and the role of capital increased, the purpose of capital in the new space was to generate more profits, thus, with a strong central focus, it reduced space barriers to accumulate profits. This created an uneven geography of urban development that the spatial structure of the city and the space organization, went to an unbalanced line Which resulted in the disintegration of space, Also, by changing the nature of space from Consumption space to exchange space Converted space into goods and this has caused the loss of sense of space in space, these are the  desirable spaces which have exchange and sale value. As a result of such a process, space has become abstracted and its users have no role on it.
 
Conclusion
In Iran, after the Constitutional Revolution, the state not only affect the urbanization process. And changes the process of urbanization by using the mechanism of changing the mode of production from the capitalist mode to the state capitalist mode but also changes the nature of space (urban space) as urbanization expands. This means that the nature of urban space is also beginning to change and the government creates new space that the nature of the space consumption is dimmed. And the exchange space is replaced by it. in this process, new actors are formed through the government that each of them help the process in some way, The city of Tehran as the capital of the country was the first place where these changes took place and the process of changing the nature of city space over a century has been giving to the state and its related elements that the city has changed a lot to accumulate capital and accelerate the process of production, distribution and consumption during this period. And changed from a "city-life" to a "city-capital" and eventually to a "city-commodity".  And it has been the result of a hundred years of state effort in space production, The state has taken control of space with great influence on the representation of space (imagined space) and abstract planning of the city and with the process of changing the everyday life has also been affected the living and perceived space.
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Article Type: Qualitative Research | Subject: Earth-Surface Processes
Received: 2018/09/14 | Accepted: 2019/01/30 | Published: 2019/06/15

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