Volume 23, Issue 2 (2019)                   MJSP 2019, 23(2): 51-95 | Back to browse issues page

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mohammadi S, kohnaposhi O. An Analysis On the Level of Resilience Changes of Rural Settlements Turning into Towns (Case Study: BardehRsheh and Owraman in Kurdistan Province. MJSP 2019; 23 (2) :51-95
URL: http://hsmsp.modares.ac.ir/article-21-25809-en.html
1- Assistant professor, Department of geography and rural planning, PNU university,Tehran,Iran , saadi@pnu.ac.ir
2- PNU university
Abstract:   (6403 Views)
Introduction
The policy of transforming large and prestigious villages, especially district centers, into city is one of the rural development strategies that has been emerged in Iran, in which since the 1970s, a large number of rural areas have been transformed into the city. In this regard, in the studied area, which is located in Kurdistan province, two villages of Oraman village in the Oraman district of Sarvabad and Bardarashah village in Khawmyrabad district of Marivan County, have become city centers in 2011 and 2012, and since then have been operating as villages-cities within the scope of their sphere. The main goal is to transform these prone areas and big villages into the city, increase the quality of local residents life and in fact, eliminate such problems as: unemployment, poverty, withdrawal from economic and social isolation, more favorable services to local residents and surrounding villages, increased dynamism Economic and social development in the region and, in general, the development of these areas, which by reducing the harmful factors mentioned above, could increase the resilience level and thus achieve sustainable development in the studied villages that have become to city. In current study, this issue has been considered as the main issue of the study. in other word research aimed to invistagate the effect of rurarl-city transformation in terms of administrative and political impact on changing the level of economic, social, environmental-physical and institutional and administrative resilience of the villages. In fact it amed to show the statuse of these parts before and aftre of transformations.
 
Methodology
The present research is applied in terms of purpose. In terms of its method, it is descriptive-analytic and in terms of collecting information is a combination of documentary-survey method. In the documentary method, reports, articles, dissertations, satellite images, sites and statistics of relevant organizations and in the field method from questionnaires, interviews and observation were used. The statistical population of this research was the households' in the two newly established towns of Bardahrashah in Marivan with 1200 people, and Oraman City with 2,700 people respectively with 240 and 711 households,that using the Cochran formula for determining the sample size and 250 households as volume, the sample was determined and then the proportion of households in each city was determined by the number of questionnaires and was randomly selected among family supervisors and the data were analyzed using quantitative analysis method including inferential statistics and descriptive statistics.
 
Results and discussion
Analysis of the collected data shows that in the social resilience dimension, the index of social capital of the local people at the significant level of 0.001 from the average of  2.936 in the previous period reached  to 3.17 in the following  period, In the economic aspect, the change in the level of resilience in rural areas shows that in the important index of employment, the average of unfavorable 2.82 to a relatively  satisfactory amount 3.18, and the income and savings situation has also risen from a dismal 2.87 to a relatively satisfactory 3.17.. Accordingly, in total, the average economic resiliency status of the village-cities surveyed has increased at the significant level of 0.001 from an average of 2.84 in the rural period to 3.17 in the urban period, and on this basis  it can be concluded that by changing the situation from village to city, the settlements  under study have become more economically resilient. Investigating the status of the physical and environmental resilience of the studied settlements indicates that the status of access to the service and communication infrastructure, which is known as the main arteries of communication between settlements with outside, and the areas of movement and economic activity have been increased. And with this description, And with that description, their utility could be like a catalyst to improve the resiliency of the settlements. In the two settlements, the change from village to city has improved, so that the average of undesirable value 2.96 in the Rural Period to 3.28 in the Urban Period. And the institutional dimension of resilience of the studied cities shows that the status of the settlements has increased from the mean value of 2.66 in the previous period to 2.97 in the next period at a significant level of 0.001, so that Institutional development in these villages has improved. [m1] 
Conclusion
In general, based on findings, in the two periods before and after the transformation of villages into the cities in the rural-urban areas, physical-environmental dimensions, economic dimension and social dimension, respectively, have the most improvement status in this transformation. The results showed that the economic aspect having the highest direct and indirect effects, and is most effective on improving the level of resilience of the villages of the studied cities after their conversion into city. In other words, the Prosperity and economic diversity  created in the village-city studied , especially the village of Bardarashah city, and the lesser extent in village-city Oraman acted as a stimulus, that in addition to having a direct impact on  improving the resilience of rural-urban areas, indirectly and by improving the performance of other dimensions, improves the overall level of resilience of  the bardarashah and Oraman settlements . Also, the results showed that the average resilience capability in Oraman village is less than the average resiliency in Khavimirabad city, so that the difference in the level of resilience of the two villages-city after the conversion from village to city is confirmed. Therefore, the level of resilience in the village-city of Bardarashah has been improved to a relatively satisfactory level, but the amount and extent of improvement in the rural-urban resiliency of Oraman is not satisfactory and reliable condition.
 
 
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Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Earth-Surface Processes
Received: 2018/10/4 | Accepted: 2019/04/15 | Published: 2019/09/3

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