Volume 26, Issue 1 (2022)                   MJSP 2022, 26(1): 89-117 | Back to browse issues page

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1- Ph.D., Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran
2- Department of Urban Planning, Tehran Branch, Tarbiat Modares School of Art and Architecture, Tehran, Iran , afsoon_mahdavi@iauk.ac.ir
3- Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares, Tehran, Iran
4- Department of Urban Planning, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, Iran
Abstract:   (1265 Views)
The present article reviews the indicators related to the paradigm of spiritual development in the production of urban space, and since the perception of spirituality is the basis, structuring conceptual dimensions and the desired semantic boundary of spirituality and spiritual development in the urban scale will require the use of qualitative methods. Those measurement parameters (codes and criteria) of spiritual-led urban planning are identified, and, in the next step, we will reach the field of measuring and evaluating the impact of these components. Therefore, the research tries to answer the following questions: What are the effective space indicators in producing the spiritual-based space from the perspective of the audience reading? What is the impact of these space indicators? Therefore, the present article is  mixed-methods research and is based on the strategy of grounded theory and structural equation modeling.
This research is mixed-methods research based on the strategy of grounded theory and modeling of structural equations, which in the first step by using meta-analysis of a selected body of research, the structure and elements of the model are identified, and then, in order to localize and identify other factors affecting the model, 23 interviews with experts were conducted in the qualitative part of the study, in which two criteria were effective in selecting the initial informants: experience in planning, policy-making, and administration in Samen region; and a minimum record of residence, presence or continuous activity in the context of this region. In this study, a total of 21 individual interviews and 2 group interviews were conducted. In the next step, in order to establish the relationship and sequence among the obtained dimensions and to present the structural model, the structural equation modeling (SEM) method was used, which based on the opinions of the experts and the analyses carried out, is the selected statistical population of Samen region. Accordingly, in accordance with the Cochran's formula and with a 95% confidence level, 384 sample units were required for all four sub-sectors and 12 spaces and the target resident and floating population. On the other hand, according to the SEM experts, in order to achieve sufficient statistical power and accurate estimates, the sample size should be equal to 10 to 15 sample units per predictor variable (Hooman, 2009), so with regard to the 23 predictor variables 345 questionnaire items were required. Finally, considering the size of samples in the first and second methods, the same number of 384 questionnaire items were developed and distributed to informed audiences and activists in this field within an area of ​​300 hectares of all sectors of Samen region (case sample).
Results and discussion
After the initial coding of the text of the interviews and field notes, in the first step, 1014 initial codes were identified. In the second stage, by refining the initial concepts, the number of these conceptswas reduced to 251 codes or first-level concepts, of which by final reviewing of the initial concepts, the elimination of unrelated concepts, and the integration of similar concepts, 53 first-level concepts are obtained. Following the research analysis process, these concepts were categorized into 8 third-level concepts and 23 second-level concepts. The value of t-statistic obtained for all identified components is greater than 1.96, and the effect of identified components on the perception of spirituality is confirmed. According to Figure 4, and considering the value of the path coefficients obtained for the desired components, the sustanability component with the path coefficient value of 0.412 is in the first rank, the management structure component with the path coefficient of 0.200 in the second rank, the justice component with a final point of 0.181 in the third rank, the component of symbolism with the path coefficient of 0.166 in the fourth rank, the component of space arrangement with the value of the path coefficient of 0.160 in the fifth rank, the role component with the path coefficient of 0.154 in the sixth rank, the security component with the path coefficient of 0.129 in the seventh rank, and the component of modernizing theoretical knowledge/practical action in the eighth rank with the path coefficient of 0.103.
Unlike previous studies, which have focused on the production of basic spirituality, focusing more on the objective components of visual spirituality and more detailed dimensions, this study analyzed all the components of this process. The results of structural equation analysis in Figure 5 show the degree of effectiveness in the production of spirituality-based space is, from higher to lower, related to the components of sustainability, management structure, justice, symbolism, spatial arrangement, role-playing, security, and deterrence of practical/contemporary action taking of theoretical knowledge. The development of basic spirituality is a concept beyond the dominant view in current planning (which measures it to the extent of mere physical interventions on the façade and at the micro-scale of urban design). This concept is a three-level construct of concepts that, along with a process-oriented view (structural spirituality), tries to balance the flow of space production through the presentation of strategies and reflections such as reform in space management structure and modernization of theoretical knowledge as a reforming catalyst of the current cycle. The result of this research relies more on replacing the point- and product-oriented view towards a process- and action-based approach in a spiritual-based development, which can be used in development studies. In fact, the reform of the space production cycle and contemporary urban planning depends on understanding the mental social processes in interaction with the objective components, and if the planning situation changes from type A to C, we will see a balanced space production cycle and its positive consequences.
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Article Type: Original Research | Subject: local planning
Received: 2021/10/28 | Accepted: 2022/01/11 | Published: 2022/05/31

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