Volume 23, Issue 4 (2019)                   MJSP 2019, 23(4): 147-191 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


1- University of Mazandaran, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Department of Urban Planning
2- University of Mazandaran, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Department of Urban Planning , pmaleki69@gmail.com
Abstract:   (3133 Views)
Extended Abstract
Introduction
A large number of researches demonstrated that built environment attributes affect the walking and cycling for transportation (Ewing & Cervero, 2010; Bauman et al., 2012). Studies examining the potential effect of the built environment on physical activity have employed objective and/or perceived (self-report) measures to assess characteristics of the neighborhood environment. Findings illustrated people who live in neighborhoods with traditional or walkable designs report about 30 minutes more walking for transportation each week and more total physical activity, compared to those who live in neighborhoods with less walkable suburban designs (Frank, et al., 2006). Therefore, the association between the built environment and walking activity are complicated due to spatial heterogeneity, self-selection issues such as attitudes and perceptions on walking behavior, and methodological differences (Lee, et al., 2017). Some evidence shows that residents’ self-reports of their neighborhood environment may be less revealing than are objective assessments. However, other studies suggest that perceived neighborhood environment exerts a unique effect and may be a more telling indicator for individual health than objective neighborhood characteristics (Wen et al., 2006). So, the aim of this research is discovering the preferences of the residence towards the walkable spaces and explaining spatial association of the perceived and objective measures of neighborhood walkability in district of 4, 8 and 13 of Tehran.
Methodology
This research is a descriptive and exploratory research that has been conducted with quantitative research approach. In this regard, GIS software were used to mapping the neighborhood walkability criteria. Network analyst functions, also, was used in order to service area determination and accessibility to public services. Exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression were cooperatively employed with regard to reduce the set of variables and extract variables that explain the objective and perceived measures of neighborhoods walkability at a 95% confidence interval in Tehran metropolitan. In relation to perceived measure of neighborhoods walkability, we used the standard questionnaire developed by Saelens et al. (2002), as well as Cerin et al. (2006), has been developed as Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS). The questionnaire has the following dimensions: Time taken to get from residence home to the nearest businesses or facilities, Access to services, Streets condition or quality in the neighborhood, Places for walking and cycling, Neighborhood surroundings, Safety from traffic, Safety from crime neighborhood satisfaction. In the present study for each neighborhood, walkability index, which is the sum of the standard Z score of four urban form metrics, is defined as a function of net residential density (ratio of the number of residential units to residential areas in each neighborhood per hectare), sum of the ratio of floor area of retail units to their parcels in each neighborhood, Land-use mix index (entropy coefficient) and street connectivity (Number of intersections with 3 or more legs per km2). Also, census data, land use and road layers and survey data were used. The statistical population of the present study is the population of all districts of the 22 districts of Tehran. The statistical samples which selected by purposeful method were 31 neighborhoods.
Results and discussion
Findings revealed that the gap between the objective and the perceived walkability, except the component of walking and cycling places, the rest of the studied dimensions, including the time of access to shops or stores, facilities, etc., access to services; neighborhood streets; neighborhood environment; perceived security of traffic and crime; and the satisfaction of the neighborhood in relation to subjective pedestrian assessment have a higher mean in neighborhoods with high objective walkability compared to those with low walkable neighborhoods. Research findings in regard to the people preferences about the walkable spaces are in line with other studies. Residents of our case study in connection with the issue of walking, as well as people from other parts of the world, prefer spaces with appropriate access to services, facilities and infrastructure needed for everyday life, and safe, attractive, lively and free of contamination and traffic environments as well as well-defined spaces for walking. The point that needs to be mentioned is the population density, the density of residential units, as well as the density of activities (commercial and service as well as offices or administrative activities). In most previous investigations, mainly in link to walking, built environment with urban sprawl form are compared to more compact cities or so-called smart cities with mixed and diverse land uses, and the result is typically that urban environments which have a dense and smart urban form that are high in density of population, activity and residential are reported proper for walking behavior. In this regard, although the urban form of the studied neighborhoods of this research compared to many previous case studies in terms of those variables, is still more compact, according to the participants’ opinion, they prefer to walkability of their residential spaces, neighborhoods that have diverse land uses (cloth stores, food markets, supermarkets, juices and ice cream shops, home appliances malls and etc.), as well as green and open spaces and environments that have more attractive facets.
Conclusion
In order to achieve the appropriate developmental model to increase the subjective and objective walkability of urban neighborhoods, some steps must be taken to increase the green and public open spaces and redistribute the land uses in accordance with the urban smart growth pattern, by through less dependence on the personal car usage, many challenges of Tehran metropolitan will reduce in line with sustainable development.
Full-Text [PDF 625 kb]   (476 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: planning models,techniques and methods
Received: 2019/06/10 | Accepted: 2019/11/3 | Published: 2019/12/31

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.