Volume 24, Issue 3 (2020)                   MJSP 2020, 24(3): 65-103 | Back to browse issues page

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Mirzaei S, Zangiabadi A. Explanation the factors affecting on achievement a happy city in Shiraz Metropolis. MJSP 2020; 24 (3) :65-103
URL: http://hsmsp.modares.ac.ir/article-21-36712-en.html
1- Student in University of Isfahan
2- Associate Professor in University of Isfahan , a.zangiabadi@geo.ui.ac.ir
Abstract:   (3669 Views)
Introduction:
Since the sense of happiness is influenced by multiple structures of urban society on the one hand, and affects the process of urban community development and excellence on the other hand, it is one of the major issues discussed in urban planning literature, that has so far been studied more psychologically and sociologically.  Therefore, in order to have a happy city, it is necessary to pay attention to the indicators affecting happiness in the city and plan planning accordingly. The role of happiness in the lives of people in the community is so much important that the social thinker, Raskin, believes: The richest country is the one with the highest percentage of happy people. It is so important that since 2000, the United Nations has accounted the variable of happiness as a key variable to classify the developments of countries; that is, if people in a society do not feel happy and satisfied, they cannot be considered a developed society. Shiraz, as the international tourism counter, the third shrine of Ahl alـBayt, and as the third Iranian tourist city, needs dynamic, happy and vital citizens. Therefore, doing this research can provide some strategies for enhancing happiness and vitality in Shiraz city, and on the other hand, helps to promote the level of hosting culture. Happy citizens have a better interaction with tourists and pilgrims, thereby increasing their satisfaction and attracting more tourists. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors affecting the realization of happy city in Shiraz metropolis. Research questions are: 1ـ How much is citizen’s happiness & their satisfaction with environmental, Socioـcultural sociocultural, economical, physical & managerial factors in Shiraz?
2ـ How much environmental, social, economical, physical and managerial variables influence on happiness?
The present study has one main hypothesis:
Hypothesis 1ـ Environmental, socioـcultural sociocultural, economical, Pphysical & Mmanagerial factors influence on the realization of happy city in Shiraz.
Methodology:
 The present study is quantitative in nature and applied in terms of purpose. Research data are collected using library studies and field method. Using the this field’s studies in this field presented in the study research literature study’s literature, and then using the three stages of the Delphi questionnaire compiled by Iranian experts in psychology, social sciences, geography and urban planning, and architecture and urban design, the factors influencing realization of the happy city have been identified and extracted, which we have investigated them in another study and are used as research variables in this study. The variables affecting happiness in the present study, including socioـculturalsociocultural, ecologicalـenvironmental, economicـlivelihood, physicalـstructural and M managerialـadministrative, were extracted as independent variables, and happiness as dependent variable. Statistical data are collected using experts and citizen questionnaires in Shiraz metropolis. The statistical population of the study were inhabitants and experts of Shiraz city. The sample size was 22 experts and 384 people based on population of Shiraz city in 2017 using Cochran method. The study time interval was autumn and winter of 2018. Data analysis was done in two parts: descriptive and inferential. In the descriptive section, the status of the research sample was presented, and the status of the city of Shiraz was studied in terms of research variables. In the inferential section, to test the research hypotheses, the varianceـbased structural equation modeling (partial least squares) approach was used, and SPSS and Amos Graphic software were used for statistical analysis. Finally, by using the SWOT method, the strategies for realizing a happy city in Shiraz were presented.
Results & Discussion:
According to the results of the study, the current status of happiness in Shiraz is above average, which is relatively good due to Iran's very low level of happiness globally compared to global ones.  In terms of factors affecting the realization of a happy city, the environmental & socioـcultural sociocultural factors were in the middle level, and other economic, physical and managerial factors were lower than the average, which indicate the inadequate status of these factors in the city of Shiraz. Moreover, of course, it shows that the people of Shiraz are, in themselves, happy people, regardless of the factors involved. However, given the impact of each of these factors, it can be seen that by prioritizing them and planning to improve each one, the happiness of the citizens will increase. Another important result of this study was the effect of independent variables on happiness, which was confirmed, and it was found that all 5 factors have a direct effect on happiness. By improving each of the affecting factors, the happiness of Shiraz will increase, and, on the contrary, by decreasing each of them, the happiness lowers down. Socioـcultural Sociocultural, economic and physical variables were the most influential variables, followed by environmental and managerial variables, respectively.
Conclusion:
In order to make the city happy, all of the influencing factors must be taken into account at the same time.  However, if we want to prioritize planning according to the status of the independent and dependent variables of the research and the extent of impact of each of them, the managerial variable should be the first priority of happy city planning and then socioeconomic variable, followed by the physical variable.  Considering the relatively appropriate status of environmental indicators and of course the importance of this indicator for sustainable development, which underlies the realization of a happy city, this variable must be considered along with other variables in all planning. Based on the results of strategic planning, defensive strategies were selected for the realization of happy city; among these strategies, the strategy of "strengthening the positive role of public and private institutions as an important and main factor influencing the realization of a happy city" was given to first priority.
Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Strategic Planning, Happiness, Happy City, Shiraz.
Full-Text [PDF 662 kb]   (1045 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: civil planning
Received: 2019/09/23 | Accepted: 2020/07/21 | Published: 2020/10/1

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