Volume 22, Issue 2 (2018)                   MJSP 2018, 22(2): 47-73 | Back to browse issues page

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Shakoori A, Morsali E. Investigating the effects of Climate and Environmental Factors on Promoting Water Productivity in Rural Communities. MJSP. 2018; 22 (2) :47-73
URL: http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-21-16781-en.html
1- Associate professor / University of Tehran
2- Expert in Ministry of Jihad-e Keshavarzi
Abstract:   (327 Views)
Introduction
Climate and environmental factors are considered as the most important challenges in contemporary age. Current research shows that climate and environmental changes were not very important in the past, but today due to the expansion of their obvious outcomes (such as the drying of lakes, wetlands, rivers, etc.) are regarded as one of the important variables. They affect various aspects of rural life in general and different activities of agricultural sector in particular. The effect of these changes on Iran is more intense, beacuse country has a large disparity of rural communities, dry and semi-arid geographic location with an evaporation more than 3 times the global average, about 70% of its rainfall -equal to 293 billion cubic meters – which become out of reach through evaporation along with the disparity of time and place of precipitation. Hence, it is predicted that along with the warming and desertification of the region (Middle East), climate change will increase the pressure on Iran's water resources. Therefore, the awareness of such a situation for the whole society, especially for rural communities and the agricultural sector, which is naturally the largest user of water resources in the country, is highly significant. consequently needs an adoption of strategic insights and new strategies to prevent the past and current strategic neglect regarding water resources at the national level and regional or local level, such as rural communities.
Methodology 
The present study is conducted using combined survey method and technique in a variety of ways such as library studies, documentary surveys of state agencies, and interview with experts, Delphi technique and a researcher-made questionnaire is utilized to analyze the information. For this purpose, software as Excel, SPSS and Smart PLS software are used. The statistical population of the research includes senior managers and senior experts in executive agencies, professors in the field of related disciplines, including professors of irrigation and agricultural schools and research institutes, as well as a number of expert farmers throughout the country. Using Cochran's formula and applying correction coefficient and taking into account the margin of error, the estimated error revealed 0.08, and the level of significance appeared α = 5%. A sample size of 180 respondents is chosen through purposeful method for data collection. In order to determine the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, content analysis method with a comprehensive general tool approach (according to the views of 40 experts) and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.94 based on the results of a sample of 20 experts is used respectively.
Result and discussion
The results of the research indicate that, from the experts' point of view, the impact of climate indicators and environmental factors on promoting water productivity in rural communities is not alike. Considering the criterion of significance coefficients z, it is found that all coefficients are higher than the criterion 1.96 and therefore, all the coefficients are significant at the 95% confidence level. Given that all obtained coefficients are greater than 0.4, thus internal consistency is confirmed. By looking at the coefficients, among the 4 components identified, the component "quality of climatic and environmental factors" with the highest coefficient of 0.958 and the component "production pattern with climatic characteristics" with a coefficient of 0.883 have the least correlation with "climate and Environmental" respectively. Meanwhile, the index "Agricultural production amount (kg) to the current volume of flood in the country (cubic meter)" with the highest coefficient of 0.896 and the index "percentage of cultivar observation" with a coefficient of 0.683 have the least relation with the relevant component. Reliability and validity indices confirms internal consistency and validity of the model: Cronbach's alpha is higher than 0.8, composite reliability is about 0.9 and convergent validity is more than 0.5. Also, the result of the divergent validity analysis of the model have shown that all components are suitable for the relevant indexes. The criterion of communality values showing the quality of the measurement models is confirmed. Likewise, the fitting of the generalized structural equation model, which is 0.87, indicates the robustness of the model. Therefore, the evaluation and assessment of the criteria and structural model showed that all variables (indicators) and (hidden) components are suitable criteria for the research model and their relationship is significant and generally strong.
Conclusion
Regarding the results, it is observed that the "water use efficiency in water crop" index is more important in promoting rural water productivity. This suggests that the farmer can have more favorable conditions for increasing production if they have or access to water management and control. However, the same conditions are not available for use of surface water such as irrigation networks that are not equipped with volumetric instruments and are not available to rural users at the right time and right place. Therefore, given the significant impact (about 85.4%) of climate change and environmental factors on rural water resources, priority and investment to promote water productivity in rural communities to promote water productivity, as an important factor, should be considered by all strategic managers of the country at regional, and national levels. an attention should be paid to positive correlation between the components and climate indicators and environmental factors, in environmental and projection studies as well as operational planning of rural areas. Since the four indicators including "the quality of climatic and environmental factors", "proper use of precipitation" ,"reducing the consequences of natural events" and "production pattern with climatic features" are more closely related to "climate and environmental factors" respectively, and likewise the indicator "amount of agricultural production (kg) to the volume of current floods in the country (cube meter) has the highest coefficient, it is recommended that appropriate investment measures is developed to optimize the use of atmospheric rainfall and current flood events, such as water and sewerage plans and rainwater harvesting.
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Received: 2017/11/29

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