Volume 22, Issue 2 (2018)                   MJSP 2018, 22(2): 133-165 | Back to browse issues page

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Alavi S, Eshghi A. The assessment of security in urban public spaces (Case Study: Tehran city parks). MJSP. 2018; 22 (2) :133-165
URL: http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-21-15332-en.html
1- Mohaghegh Ardabili UniversityUrban Geography Department, Ardabili Mohaghegh University, Ardabil, Iran
Abstract:   (151 Views)
Because of expansion of cities and increase in the population density, security is one of the basic human needs in urban life. In fact, feel safe in the city is one of the criteria for urban development, considered as a measure of the effectiveness in urban development programs, affects citizens' behaviors and dynamism of the city. Today is considered as one of the important indicator in the quality of urban life and will increase the comfort and welfare of citizens and accept the work, commitment and responsibility. In fact, since one of the most important criteria and factor in discussions related to social aspects of sustainable development is to encourage citizens to participate in urban spaces and to strengthen social interactions in these areas, it is necessary to identify and eliminate barriers to such presence. Security promotion methods have become one of the main priorities of urban professionals and theorists. Factors that eliminate urban security, threaten or reduce the security of the cities are many, and some urban spaces, especially public spaces, such as parks, are one of the main threats to urban security. These spaces are usually considered to be cozy and safe spaces for illegal and abusive activities. Therefore, leisure life is among the most important spheres of people's lives influenced by the feeling of security. Parks, as one of the most important urban uses, play a major role in the realization of leisure and recreational activities for citizens living in urban areas, and are visited by many people daily.
The method of this research is descriptive-analytic with a purposeful purpose. To evaluate the safety of the parks 24 indicators are used. The required data of the research are derived from the performance statistics and arrest of the Tehran Municipality Protection Unit at parks level, published in the statistical journal of Tehran. In order to determine the importance of each of the indicators, the network analysis model (ANP) and for analyzing the data, the Promethean model and the GIS software are used. In the first stage, after analyzing the data, parks are classified into five groups with high, moderate, low, very low security and lack of security. The output from this step is mapped in the GIS software environment. The second stage involves identifying the disruptive factors of security and distribution of factors in the level of parks in Tehran. In the final stage, using the Google Earth software, the position of the studied parks is determined and spotted on the map of Tehran. After creating the layer, the information is added to the layer descriptive information table. After preparing the layer using the interpolation model, estimates of the kernel density of the areas where the most insecurity factors occurred are identified and their distribution is identified on the map.
 Results and discussion
24 indicators have been used to assess the security of parks in Tehran. The total safety margin in 2014 at 41 of the studied parks is 17883. The most common cause of insecurity is related to the issuance of a bill for communicating social security offenses with 11678 cases, arrests of addict 1490, the arrest of alcoholic beverages 984, seizure of motorcycles 787, rejection of bribes 771, seizure of vehicles 760, arresting conflicts 397, perpetrators of monkery crimes 269, arresting artillery and firearms 126, arresting the burglar with 114 Case and other factors are 498 cases. Except for the issuance of social security vehicle social security offenses, respectively, the factors mentioned above are 24, 16, 13, 13, 12, 8, 6, 4, 2, and 2 percent of the insecurity factors in the park.
According to the results of the studies carried out in the study based on the crimes that occurred in 2014 in 41 parks with regional performance in Tehran, Sahand, al-Ghadir, Sa'adat Abad, Misagh, Shafagh and 22 Bahman parks with a value of Phi between 300/0 to 600 / 0 with high security, Artists, Niavaran, Thesis, Meyad, Flight, Bahman, Shariati, Jamshidieh, Saee, Razi, Narges, Fadak, Basij, Darband, Ghaem, Koohsar, Knowledge, Mahdi and Darabad with a Phi value of 0 to 300/0 with Medium Security, Bahiar, Behsat, Mellat, Park City, Derek, Resort, Tulip, Persian Gulf and Nahjul Balaghah with values of Phi between 0 and 300/0-lower, Azadgan, Student, Provincial and police with Phi values between -0.300 and -0.600- Very low security And Lovazan, Chitgar, Sorkha Hessar, , are unprotected with a value of Phi of over 600/0. Sahand Park with the value of Phi is equal to 416/0 and Sorkheh Hesar Park with a value of Phi is 728/0. Sahand Park has the least amount of addict arrest, the arrest of Kharv and alcoholic beverages, the arrest of conflict and conflict, the arrest of social misconduct and fraud, and the rejection of bribes and acts of punishment. In front of Sorkheh Hesar Park, it has the most deplorable arrest, arresting a force mausoleum, suspecting a force majeur, arresting thugs, arresting CDs illegal sale. In the sequel, the GIS is used to show the most insecure areas, used to interpolate the kernel density. A map of the density of the entire crime occurred in the park. The results of the interpolation of the kernel density indicate that the parks in central parts of Tehran have moderate security the northern and southern parts have high security and parts of East and West of Tehran are unprotected. Also, according to the directional distribution map, the distribution side is the most insecure factors in the parks of Tehran in the east and west of Tehran.
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Received: 2017/12/8

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